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Alexander The Great
The Neolithic Revolution
Ashoka the Great
Characteristics of Civilizations
Charlemagne and His Relationship With the Catholic Church
Chavins and Olmecs
Code of Hammurabi
collapse of Gupta
Diffusion of Chinese Culture into Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Egypt (River Valley Civilization)
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Alexander The Great
"Our enemies are Medes and Persians, men who for centuries have lived soft and luxurious lives; we of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war."
-Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great was born around July 20, 356 B.C. He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olypmias. He was tutored by Aristotle. He succeeded Philip II after Philip was assassinated by a nobleman.
Alexander wanted to take over Persia for revenge because he believed that their king, Darius III, sent the assassin. Alexander brought his 40,000 strong army across the Hellespont. He defeated persian forces at Granicus. He then sieged Halicarnassus successfully. He defeated the main Persian army under the leadership of Darius III, at the battle of Issus.
He then traveled towards Egypt and on the way, attacked the city of Gaza. It fell after 3 attacks led by Alexander. Jerusalem surrendered without a fight. He reached Egypt in 332 B.C,. He was regarded as a liberator and founded the city of Alexandria-by-Egypt.
He left Egypt in 331 B.C. to Mesopotamia. He defeated Darius lll at the Battle of Guagamela. Darius lll fled after the battle. Alexander then captured Babylon. He then traveled to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and looted the treasury. He then went to the Persian ceremonial city of Persepolis. He defeated the Persian army who tried to stop him and lloted the city.
Darius lll fled again and Alexander chased after him. Darius lll was killed by Bessus, who took over the throne. They battled throughout Central Asia before Bessus was betrayed to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's trusted generals, and was executed.
Alexander then attacked western India. He successfully battled his way to the Ganges River before his army refused to march any father East. They returned to Persia conquering more cities on their way back.
Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32 on June 10, 323 B.C. Perdiccas, his bodyguard, and Philip III, his half brother, were appointed joint Kings after an unspecified succession by Alexander.
His empire at the time of his death, covered 2,000,000 sq miles. Alexander's conquests transferred ideas and technology. He mixed his culture with the culture of the conqueored people.
India took may of the religous ceremonies from the Greeks. Many Generals and military academies compare themselves to Alexander the Great and his army. His tactics are still taught and studied.
The attack of the Macedonian forces was generally made in an oblique battle formation with an advanced right flank and a refused left wing. A fierce charge of the heavy horse on a small portion of the enemy's forces was intended to break the morale of the enemy and create panic among units not in the heat of battle. Success depended to a large extent on breaking down the morale of an opponent. The use of surprise was an important tactic to undermine the confidence of the enemy. Unexpected maneuvers were used to surprise the enemy forces at the Granicus, Issus and the Hydaspes. It was also important to engage the enemy when his forces were resting after long marches and lack of sleep.
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